Gamma radiations are electromagnetic waves uttered by unstable isotopes (radioisotopes) through the phenomenon of " decadence " or " disintegration " called Radioactivity.
The number of disintegrations in the unity of time defines the activity of the radioactive source. The radiation, crossing the matter, surrenders a certain quantity of energy to this. The absorbed dose is the energy surrendered to the matter radiated in the unity of mass.
The unity of measure for the absorbed dose is the Gray (Gy) correspondent to 1 J/kg. 60Co is the radioisotope gamma emitter more largely used in the industrial trials of irradiation and drift from the bombardment 59Co neutronic existing in nature.
The effects, direct or induced, of the radiations on the micro - organisms consist in their interaction with the nucleus of the cells and other components, causing the break-up of the molecules of the DNA and preventing the cellular division and therefore the propagation of the biological life (microbial proliferation).
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